From the dawn of history mankind has revealed an uncomfortable areas to improve his lot along with his requirements of food and shelter have been the deep-rooted desires to reduce drudgery handle freely beyond the horizons of his limited domain time and space have always presented their talons man early recognized that energy must be found finest and properly applied to happen but throughout many centuries man was unprepared to see the potential servant in the substance that occasionally seats from the Earth’s crust oil well  I’ll has long been known to mankind aware of its unusual burning characteristics the Babylonians kept their ceremonial torches and oil and pitch in drilling wells for water and brine the Chinese came upon the oil 600 years ago their energy and power facilities remain however limited and primitive little did they know that oils such as they encountered with someday be a source of freedom from toil and drudgery early American Indians use the or that they found as a medicine and . and even in the eighteen hundreds petroleum recovered as a nuisance byproduct of Brian well drilling or sold as a cure-all but now the progress of civilization had set the stage for awakened interest in petroleum animal fats and tallow could no longer supply the ever growing need for candles and lubricants oil which had long been the chief illuminant was becoming scarce yet the demand for artificial white was increasing in 1850 a lamp capable of efficiently burning a refined product of petroleum was invented petroleum it seemed might supply the growing need for lubricants and light but digging for that seeps could not supplied in sufficient quantities the fact that some oil been found while drilling brian wells suggested the interesting possibility of drilling for oil itself in 1859 a Derek was constructed near oil seeps at Titusville Pennsylvania this was accomplished under the direction of a retired railroad conductor head when L Drake with the assistance of an experienced Brian well driller uncle Billy Smith operations finally got underway crude handmade tombs and the primitive steam engine enable them to drill at a rate of only three feet per day  a depth of 69 and I had feet have been attained with no encouraging signs when one Sunday morning uncle Billy took a look around   that’s on that eventful day of august 27, 1859 Edwin Drake and his associates ushered in a new era has now been shown the oil in substantial quantities could be obtained by drilling with the rapid spread the news came a fantastic migration of those who saw in this development a possible source of new wealth the boom was on towns and Derek sprang up almost overnight in the vicinity of Drake’s discovery for lack of engines and drilling equipment many cruel but ingenious drilling methods were devised strong backs and legs and infinite patience supplied the power to drill only a few feet per day with the realization of money drillings resulted in expensive and disappointing dry holes so-called experts with divining rods luck and intuition were much in demand  yet the combined efforts of these pioneers resulted in rapidly increasing oil production waiting for slow and inadequate transportation oil piled up at the world sites storage became a vital problem anything that could hold oil was pressed into service thousands of wagons and teams became regularly engaged in hauling the oil to the nearest shipping points when possible charges and wraps were employed to carry the oil such transportation proved inadequate in supplying the fast-growing market and saw in 1865 the first oil pipeline was laid over a five mile distance from the whole city to the railroad  within nine years a 60-mile trunkline a 4-inch pipe stretched from the oil region to Pittsburgh seeing the rapid loss of their revenue to the successful pipelines the Teamsters fought hard and bitterly but they could not stop the growing momentum of the industry’s progress crude refining plants or stills boiled and separated the oil into the two items in demand kerosene or illumination and heavy lubricants and undesired product considered dangerous and unusable was discarded in great quantities the product was gasoline the very portion of crude oil that was soon to change the economic and social status of the industry and the country these refineries were however supplying illumination and heat for many homes and through lubricants were freeing the wheels of a fast growing industrial machine aids at the turn of the century a momentous change in the course of the industry was in the offing the use of oil for light seemed doomed to rapid oblivion at this critical stage appeared the invention of us to revolutionize the oil industry’s course of progress and change the living habits of the nation no longer was gasoline destined to be a useless by product instead with a swift popularity of the automobile gasoline quickly assume the position of Prime the man with the development of the internal combustion engine along unrecognized potential use of oil had last been revealed to mankind the recognition of oil as an economical and easily handle liquid source of power was the springboard for a new era of magnificent progress inspired by the American system of possible reward for risk discovery and expansion swept westward to the Pacific the midcontinent the Gulf Coast and the Rocky Mountains the oil industry quickly found its stride in the suddenly stopped up temple of progress with ever increasing and improving oil products it kept pace with invention and even forced it to proceed at a rapid rate through enterprise and the accumulation of knowledge it has now reached the stage of maturity undreamed are even a generation ago throughout millions of years since the Earth’s formation constant heaving Buckley and erosion have changed many portions of the earth’s surface many areas were repeatedly covered by shallow seeds countless billions of tiny organisms died and settle to the bottom where they became very understand and silk there it is believed the entombed organisms were transformed into oil accumulated pressures of gases water and earth sometimes told the oil through the porous and sedimentary rock  and often it migrated to underground reservoir sealed by non-porous formations where the oil was trapped it is from these reservoirs that all is now most likely to be recovered in commercial quantities us today the oil geologist searches both for locations where oil may have been formed and locations where oil may have been trapped conditions that were favorable to the formation of oil may be indicated by traces of ancient seas and fossilized remains of long-extinct organic material on the ground formations where oil may have been trapped may be indicated by surface structures stereoscopic photographs are a great aid in the study of surface indications another method of search for oil is through chemical analysis of soil samples for my new evidence of CP to the lightest hydrocarbons the economy of this method from its blanketing large areas and promising indications are then verified by more expensive detail geophysical methods in the far-flung search for oil modern geologists and geophysicists often make use of the helicopter and the marsh buggy a special vehicle which can take them into almost inaccessible swampland subterranean oil traps may be found by mapping underground formations the gravity meter gives clues to the nature in depth of these formations by measuring the gravitational pull the magnetometer is another instrument that can help plot underground formations by measurement of the Earth’s magnetic fields one of the most important of all methods of search is the seismogram a shell hole is drilled for a small explosive charge and special microphones are strategically placed around the shot the detectors will pick up the explosion and the shock waves reflected from far underground this will give information as to the shape and depth of the underground standard the shock waves are reflected by the various rock layers underground and are recorded at the surface the time it takes for the wave to make this round trip varies with the distance they travel the recorded measurement of this time-lapse indicates the depth us through a series of shots the shape and depth of underground formations are mapped with accuracy the seismograph is even used to detect potential drilling site several miles out at sea special sensitive to your phones are lowered into the water to predetermine depths and positions explosives are detonated under the water as on the land the recordings of reflected shock waves revealed variations in the ground better under the seabed  actual drilling is still the only conclusive step and finding oil even today in Newfield drilling only about one well in nine becomes a producer costs of building a well will average about 77,000 dollars for some wells that cost as much as a million the older cable to method is still generally used in drilling formations hard enough to stand up well and we’re low cost rather than speed is the principal consideration the rotary drilling method developed since the turn of the century is now used more extensively although more expensive it is speedier and enables drilling through loose unconsolidated formations too far greater depths in drilling to depths of two or even three miles the repeated raising lowering and handling of the bill pipes to replace the bits is a difficult time-consuming function  steel pipe or casing is used to line the well walls and give them strength to prevent caving in the whole cement pumped around successfully strings of casing seals the holes against leakage of oil gas or water as the drill passes through various types of formations wait on the bill bit must be suitably adjusted this retired wondering of the drill from its course and possible buckling or bending from the accumulating weight of added drill pipe chemically treated months are pumped through the hollow drill pipe too cool and lubricate the bit and carry the rock cut away by the drill back to the surface it also plasters the walls the whole to help prevent cave-ins a screening device called a shaker removes the rock particles from the mud preparing it for reuse samples of the cuttings are examined to determine the kind of strata being drill through even the senses of taste and smell are used as an occasional quick test when it is suspected that oil-bearing formations are being approached core samples are taken with a special drill bit at some drilling locations these are sent to field in central laboratories which test the bar porosity or the volume of small cavities that may contain soil permeability are the potential rate of flow through the rock pores and the oil content of the sample  still another method of estimating underground conditions is through measurement of electrical resistances at various billing depths this process is known as electric logging during the process of drilling a special valve at the top of the whole may be closed off in the event of unexpected blow outs when an oil bearing formation is reached the drill is pull heavy mud are used to hold back the flow of oil from natural pressures wells are no longer permitted to blow in as dangerous wasteful gushers a final string of casing is set some wells are shot with explosives permitting the oil to flow into the well when the glass and photos charges of this perforator are dominated in the whole powerful jet explosions penetrate the casing and surrounding Rock a small diameter tubing through which the oil will come to the service is installed at the surface a system of Valve’s called a Christmas tree is installed this controls the flow out sometimes wells are treated with chemicals are acid eyes to open up passages in the limestone for the oil to flow through other chemicals may be used to stimulate oil flow and prevent water migration to the well when natural bottomhole pressures are not enough to force the oil to the surface the well is put on the pump  and many locations ingenious centralized power systems work a number of well pops bringing the oil to the surface and sending it to the storage tanks in the present-day application of scientific production methods the industry is wisely trying to conserve reservoir energy by maintaining subsurface pressures no longer our wells drilled without regard for adequate spacing the production of individual Wells is carefully regulated to prevent waste or depletion of reservoir energy however in many fields reservoir pressures have been warned to a point where oil does not flow naturally to the worlds in many such locations natural gas usually associated with oil production is first pipe to cycling plants where liquid products are extracted the gas is then pumped into the or producing zones where the pressure helps the oil flow through the sands and porous rock toward the wells in other locations water instead of gas is employed to drive the oil these are a few of the many ways in which oil is now recovered that would otherwise have been lost forever oil production on land has been augmented in recent years through drilling at sea oil producers are thus opening vast new production potential to bring more oil to the nation today’s soil scientists know the crude oil is a complex chemical mixture of molecules of many different kinds it is a liquid treasure chest from which hundreds of finished products may be derived through refining the industry’s complex research is constantly disposing new products from oil as well as developing processing techniques designed for you some efficiently and economically in the initial stages of modern refining the flowing oil is heated in a pipe still to about 800 degrees Fahrenheit this superheated oil then enters a fractionating tower upon release from the confinement of the pipes all but the heaviest portions of the hot oil prices of papers and start to rise in the tower various components of the crude oil vapors condensed are changed back to their liquid state at different temperatures as the vapors rise to successively cooler levels the heavier fractions condense the lower trays and the lighter components collect on the higher trays thus products or fractions ranging from asphalt and heavy oils on up to my toils kerosene and gasoline may be drawn off independently  while fractionating our distillation is a process of separating oil components cracking is a term applied to the process of breaking big molecules of oil into smaller ones to make more of some fractions that would be obtained by ordinary distillation through cracking twice as much gasoline can now be produced from a barrel of oil then with distillation alone while this may be done through heat and pressure alone a more modern and efficient method is with the use of a catalyst oil vapors are passed to a reactor together with the catalyst this is a substance that has the ability to change the molecular are chemical structure of the vapors the mixture of practice papers is then sent to a fractionating tower for distillation or separation of the newly-formed components the used catalyst is sent to a regenerator that prepares it for reuse in the system a number of other ingenious processes are now employed to take apart put together all rearranged the molecules up tutorial through a carefully controlled production balance of refinery products the oil industry now supplies not only fuels and lubricants but the basic ingredients for limited variety of chemicals these in themselves are the foundation of gigantic new industries petroleum-derived plastics found in many of our modern fabrics are made in plants such as this the manufacture of soaps and detergents is another large enterprise using petroleum products the synthetic rubber industry is still another based upon petroleum-derived chemicals recent times have seen a tremendous increase in the uses of a variety of synthetic rubber today the distribution of petroleum and its by-products has in itself become a tremendous enterprise network of pipelines is an essential part of this undertaking modern machines have greatly ease and speeded the task of digging the trenches and repairing the thousands of miles of pipe required pipes were formerly screwed together but modern welding techniques helped produce a continuous an unbroken artery of steel before they are buried the pipes are thoroughly cleaned they are next covered with a special compound that resists the corrosive action of the chemicals in the soil further protection is given by a smooth spiral reppin thus the life and serviceability of the lines are prolonged nearly 140,000 miles of pipe now carry crude oil to United States refineries another 23,000 miles of pipe carry finished products of petroleum a gigantic system of pumping stations horses petroleum and its products over and through all kinds of terrain under modern methods various oil products are pumped through the same line adjacent sections are units modern oil tankers and barges account for a large percentage of the bulk transportation of oil and oil products the tankers are indispensable for the overseas movement of oil railroad tank cars have also kept pace with oil development many of them having specially prepared compartments they daily carry millions of gallons of various oil products more than a hundred thousand tank trucks are in service today they represent an efficient and flexible means of oil distribution through such trucks there is an ever increasing trend toward distribution of oil products direct from the refinery to the service station and the consumer the automobile service station itself represents a high degree of friendly competitive efficiency in modern petroleum distribution through petroleum Americans now travel with efficient economic power while the complex machinery that carries them is protected and lubricated with oil beauty and efficiency surround them in the synthetic letters and fabrics made from petroleum and in the plastics from the same source oil derived synthetic rubber cushions their ride and seals out noise and weather the safe long-lasting tires on which they ride may be made from oil eighty-five percent of the roads in which they travel are paved with petroleum products through petroleum energy people and products are now transported speedily and economically throughout the nation and the world man’s desire for freedom of movement has been full filled with petroleum what three gallons of gasoline did 25 years ago two gallons will do today machines powered by oil now enable the farmer to produce three times as much as he could before oil became his faithful I’ve oil heats the farmers home as well as his brothers it protects his fruit trees from killing frosts and oil products are used to spray his trees no longer a slave to the soil the farmer has been freed to enjoy a fuller life and an ever-improving standard of living through oil our nation’s defensive maintained with a speedy mobile army as well as a fast hard-hitting Air Force our flexible long-range navy and marine now moved with oil it has been estimated that the energy available from our current output of petroleum would be equivalent to the labor of about ten times as many people as there are in the world the modern 30 billion-dollar oil industry is a large factor in the support of our national economy through wide-scale direct and indirect employment and through a limitless variety of products and uses it is contributing to nearly every player’s of American living in the relatively few years since the oil industry’s inception traditions of progressive service and responsibilities have been established which will be the foundation for even greater contributions to the welfare of the nation and the world man now look with grateful pride it is short but spectacular history of development and use of petroleum through truly american enterprise and ever increasing knowledge our lives will be yet further and wrist through the wise and efficient utilization of this bountiful resource oil.